History of Astrology

The origins of Astrology dates back to ancient cultures, where the initial zodiacs, created by diverse cultures, allow us to situate its beginning, which according to the more probable calculations, is 26,000 years before the Christian era.
 
It is at this time that in the proto-history the signs would have had the same designation of the constellations, knowledge that was passed down orally, establishing itself as the first form of what we now recognize as Astrology.
 
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AnchorORIGEM PROTO - HISTORIC
The appearance of astrology can be fixed before writing, in a period prior to the Prehistoric era - the Proto-History - wherein, initially, the man limited to observe the celestial sphere and scrutinize the movements of the stars .
It was, therefore, only in the prehistoric era, that the initial observations have undergone processes of systematization and correlation between celestial events and earthly happenings . Undeniable , the men of the Proto-History, accurately determine the direction of the rising of the sun and his variations in the annual course of the seasons. The sages were able to establish, without question, for example, the solar orientation of the major megalitic stations like Stonehenge in England and Carnac in Brittany. It is seen , therefore, that draws from the origin, the priestly character of the first astronomical research and therefore of Astrology.


Alinhamento de Carnac

In this last example, some authors wanted to go further, considering the alignments of Carnac as an accurate representation of certain parts of the accurate astronomical sky, with all its constellations .
 
It should be noted, however, the importance of the two solstice and two equinox in all astrology protohistoric . We should make a brief reference to some fantastic hypotheses raised by more audacious authors, placing the origin of Astrology in complete Prehistory period.
 
The author Robert Charroux, for example, in his book " Livre des Secrets trahis " evoked not only the existence of very hypothetical giant races in antediluvian times, but also admitted contacts between these legendary terrestrial civilizations, so distant in time, and mysterious and civilizig aliens who had come from the planet Venus.
To this they based on the famous Venusian calendar discovered in pre-Columbian ruins of Tiahuanaco, near Lake Titicaca, to develop hypotheses far more romantic. It proves nothing, for now, that Tiahuaanaco has truly been, as intended, "the oldest city in the world." For several specialized archaeologists, these famous ruins date back, in fact, in a period (if express ourselves according to western chronology) to the beginning of the Middle Age (Robert Laffont, chapter I, about astrology in pre-Columbian period).
 
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A ASTROLOGIA ANTIGA E ORIENTAL

MESOPOTÂMIOS

 
In the Roman Empire, the name of the Chaldeans [ 1 ] has become, little by little, synonymous of astrologer, which brought confirmation of the theory, according to which the guidance by the stars, by under its truly codified form, originated in Babylon and neighboring provinces.

Archaeology seems to confirm completely this opinion historical current. In addition to secure documents that attest to the existence of highly developed Chaldean astrology among the two or three millennia before the Christian era, there were more recent findings that locate their practice in an era clearly previous to the Sumerians, that would have brought from Central Asia, around the V millennium a.C.

The Historian Paul Masson Oursel, in his work " La philosophie en Orient " (supplementary issue of Histoire de la Philosophie, Emile Brehier) refers to the structuring principles of Mesopotamian astrology , placing its origin in a period well beyond the final establishment of Christianity, placing it even after the implementation of Islamic religion in the Mediterranean world.
It were found in Mesopotamia many planetary tables engraved on bricks, like all the written documents dating back to the Sumerians, the Babylonians, the Chaldeans and the Assyrians.
 
In all the old Mesopotamian civilizations, we found existence in the clergy of a special class of priests - the diviners - who practiced other "hidden" methods (interpretation of omens, dreams , etc...) and cultivated, especially, what that would be the astrology. Although this initially was only atthe range of sovereigns and, subsequently, the aristocracy, gradually, these techniques were put at the service of an ever increasing number of individuals (it will be verifiable the same phenomenon in ancient Egypt). The influence of astrology was becoming increasingly strong, even on the events of everyday life. The great temples of ancient Mesopotamia were involved by a tower, called by the Babylonians, the Ziggourat, which comprises seven floors variously colored, which symbolized the successive hierarchical regions, bringing together the celestial sphere to earth. [ 2 ] [2] DFrom the top of these towers, fortune tellers watched the precise movement of the stars in the sky, and we cannot deny that they have attained a remarkable mastery of the mathematical results, because they knew how to calculate the dates of solar and lunar eclipses.
We owe them the development of common calendar divisions in the West, still used in our days: months, weeks, days, hours. The Sun thus assumes a central role, personalized in a god, and, like the other planets, it was considered a divinity. However, it would not be correct to assume that among these early astrologers, so skillful to peer appearances, there was a knowledge of the truths of the physical astronomy .
As in many other ancient civilizations, the celestial sphere was thought to be designed with a rigid and precise limit, supposing enclose the sublunary world. By the stars, sort of translucent buoys, descended to us, the eternal light , coming from beyond this sphere of heaven.
At the time of the discovery of the library of Assyrian king Assourbanipal in the ruins of Nineveh, the archaeologists found boards that reproduced the copy held about the year 700 BC, an astrological collection elaborate on an earlier date to the King Shargon, the Old, and showing the close connection between astrology, in the strict sense of the term, and the Interpretation of omens.
 
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EGIPTO

If Babylon is seen classically as the country of origin for excellence to astrology, this privilege of precedence should be shared in good justice, with another country of the very old civilization of the Mediterranean - Egypt .
In the late period of the growing influence of the Christian religion on Egypt Hellenistic astrologers, this country enjoyed a flattering reputation that exceeded even the limits of the Romanized homeland. In Stromates ( VI , 4) A doctor of the Church, Clement of Alexandria, has left us a very vivid retrat of egipcian astrologer of his time, described as " having the watch on his hand and in the palm, emblems of his art." According to custom, he should be ready to recite at length the four astrological books of Hermes, one of which is of the order of the stars that appear fixed, the other is of the conjunctions and light of the sun and moon. "Even Eusebius wrote (Evangelical Preparation , X6) , "Were the Egyptians and Chaldeans that first discovered astrology."
Maybe its not useless now say a few words about the fantastic assumptions that were made ​​about the Pyramids. One of the incomparable monumental testimonies left by the men of ancient Egypt, and it never ceases to intrigue many modern authors, is the famous meeting of the three magnificent pyramids of Giza, on the left bank of the Nile. According to the astrologer Don Neroman (Grande Encyclopédie Illustrée occultes of Sciences , T.II , p.138 ), the Great Pyramid would be - and resumes the so audicious statement of many esoteric - a kind of summary of all secret knowledge learned by traditional priests in the beginning of the pharaonic era, at the very beginning of the Ancient Egyptian Empire. It is an undeniable fact that the Great Pyramid reveals the details of his own guidance, a very accurate astronomical knowledge on the part of Egyptian builders .
The Egyptians had a calendar that was greatly improved, called Sothiac calendar, which started from the year 4241 a.C. We observe the division of the twelve zodiacal constellations into three parts, each of which is designated by the brightest star. Thus, it was determined thirty-six divisions or decaneries, corresponding to the decennial divisions of the zodiacal circle of the 360 degrees.
What complicates the task of the historian is the atribution given by the Egyptians, of different names to the constellations whose names we became so acquaintance. As an example, our Ursa Major was called the leg of the ox, the Swan was designated by the man with arms outstretched, Orion was the man running man looking over his shoulder, etc...

 

Zodíaco Circular de Denderah

To the Egyptians the heliacal rise of the star Sirius Sothis - an important star who played a crucial role in their calendar - determined the actual year. One of the most important Egyptians astrological testimonies, is without any doubt the circular Zodiac carved on the ceiling of the temple of Denderah, and discovered by General Desaix during the expedition of Bonaparte (1798), which is in the Louvre. It is important to emphasize that this famous Zodiac incorporate all Egyptian priestly knowledge concerning celestial vault. It is observed, in this so beautiful representation, the way the various characters and animals of the Zodiac  look to the West, and all seem to be directed towards the diurnal motion.
 
To the Egyptians, the East (where the sun rises) was traditionally the source of light, and the West was, however, conceived as the dark side of darkness (the Beyond). The stars have seven points, a number particullary sacred among the Egyptians, as in many other ancient traditions. Among the animal representations, we cite the hawk (symbol of the equator), the ibis (symbol of the ecliptic), the cinocefalic monkey (symbol of the two equinoxes).

 

However, if the distinction of the usual signs of the Zodiac seems to have come from Greece, is undeniable in high antiquity, in Egypt itself, the division, no less traditional of the area of sky near the ecliptic in thirty-six decans, each of which is considered the privileged domain of a celestial genius. In the so called hermetic treatises (placed at the time by Hermes Trismegistus), one speaks of thirty-six decans at the middle of the zodiacal circle.
 
And what about astrology itself under its most common form - the study of the influence of the position of the stars on the individual destiny - its popularity was only found in Egypt in the verý low epochs. Apparently, many Egyptologists were inclined to take into account the Babylonian heritage, after the Greek influences (in the Ptolemaic period), and then the Romans. Personally, we believe in the existence of an ancient Egyptian priest astrology date, which was firstly limited to the sovereign, the country as a whole, and the highest personalities, as in Babylon. Only gradually the astrological prediction was widened to more numerous social class, ending, in a last step, to reach all means.


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HEBREUS

In order to frame the astrology in Hebrew culture, it would be necessary to determine if the belief is expressed in the Bible. Undoubtedly, the knowledge of the solar and lunar cycles, fundamentals of astrological predictions, was not unknown to the priests of Israel. Was not the Temple of Jerusalem built in such a way that the two equinoxes, the rays of the rising sun came reaches the very heart of the shrine? Did not Moses marked the exodus to the full moon of spring, which assumed of the part of the great Hebrew legislator a knowledge of lunar ciclologia? Could not be possible match analogically the twelve tribes of Israel, blessed by Jacob, and the twelve zodiacal constellations? In Ezekiel's vision of the New Jerusalem, the ecliptic seemed to be considered, for this great prophet, as a determination of a circuit, in which the result was, in fact, a return to the beginning of the earthly cycle: "And from this day, the name of the city ​​will be: the Eternal is here."
We find these zodiacal correspondences in New Testament period, the description of the New Jerusalem that will come in the Revelation of St. John. The New Jerusalem "had twelve gates, and on the gates twelve angels, and names written thereon, the tribes of the children of Israel," direct reflection, therefore, of the astrological numerology. Adding, however, the problem of knowing, first, if the astrological practice, in the sense of the term, that is, the setting of individual horoscopes, would be included from the beginning in the traditional knowledge that the Bible allows us to glimpse.


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INDIA

"In the order of the sciences, India received more than he gave." - P.Masson oursel-La Philosophie en Orient, p.107: The traditional Indian astronomy, which includes astrology, is gathered in Hellenistic and Iranians texts in Surya Siddhanta. A careful reading reveals just the important role played by the introduction of foreigners sistems: the Greek astronomy in Romaka Siddhanta, the Babylonian astrology in Siddhanta Paulica (work composed around the year 550 of our era by Varaha Mihira, known as a wise man and astrologer ) and the hellenistic and iranian solar cults in the Surya Siddhanta.
But it is necessary to mention the first astrological references and records in Indian culture, even before the time of its visibility and mass diffusion (VI-VII centuries of our era), lying open at the time, certain Chinese influences, especially with regard of the lunar zodiac.
Besides Varaha Mihira, we cite among the first Indian astrologers: Aryabhata, who was also a great mathematician; Brahmagupta (born 598), author of the treatise Khandakhyadyaka (665) and Kankah, that after the Muslim conquest, communicated his astronomical knowledge to the Arabs. Neither the Vedas or in the Brahmanic Scriptures it could be found a solar astrology in the precise sense of the term (development of individual horoscopes). In return, they would find traces from the Mahabbarata, (written between the years 300 BC and 500 AD), a kind of lunar astrology, representing the oldest form of astrology.
It would not be useless to try to assess the possible place of the current astrological determinism in traditional Indian conceptions, about cycles and time. In India, we must take into account the way the "fate" of the man is always linked to cosmic perspectives, which refers to the general question of astrological determinism. This is apparent in the notion of Karma, according to which the acts and thoughts of the individual would govern all of his perform in this earthly life and in those that follow.
Taking up the approach to the practice of astrology, Indian astrologers are still doing today a meticulous use of their classical treatise that holds the books that make up the work of Varaha Mihira, being them Brihad-Samhita, a general and natural astrology manual, the Brihad-Dschataka and Laghu Dschatakam, which are, respectively, the "large" and "small" treaty to develop of the art of horoscopes; the Yoga-Dschartas, which encodes the rules of horary astrology for military and political, and the fifth book, the Vivaha Patala, which provides rules of horary astrology to the civil or religious fields.


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[1] We speak of the "Chaldeans" with great length of employment of the name, but the term Mesopotamians would undoubtedly be more accurate, because the Chaldeans were not, in any way, the only ancient peoples who conquered the Middle East, this key-region of the "fertile crescent of land" which is Mesopotamia (the land "between the rivers" - which are the Tigris and Euphrates) and neighboring areas.

 

[2] The Ziggourat was adopting also another expression Babylonian - El-Temen-An-ti, which literally means "the house of the foundation stone of heaven and earth."

 

A ASTROLOGIA ENTRE OS GREGOS E OS ROMANOS
 

"Astrology is an Eastern religion that, transplanted in Greece, a country of "physics" and philosophers, took aspects of a science. Intelligible as a religion, withdrew of the astronomy the principles, measures, arithmetic and geometric speculations, also intelligible, but proceeding from the pure reason, and no longer from the complex mix of feelings that is the practical reason of religions. From the association of these two forms of reasoning came out a bastard combonation, basically illogical, but provided with a special logic, which is the art of taking the imaginary axioms, provided by religion, demonstrations conform to the methods of science. This combination, which might seem unstable, was, however, singularly resistant, flexible and plastic enough to adapt to all the doctrines, flatter the religious feeling and even more the interess of atheists." Bouché - Leclercq
Without a doubt, the Greek astrology is of Chaldean origin. Among most of the Greek philosophers, was the firm belief in the direct influence of the stars and their motions on human destiny. This is particularly clear in Pythagoras (who will be born in Samos about the year 582 BC), with his doctrine, so characteristic, about the planets that travel the celestial sphere, each emitting its own musicial note, engendering a combination of tonalities, believed the Pythagoreans, that what was called the harmony of the spheres.
Both Plato and Aristotle, after Pythagoras, believed firmly in the direct influence of the stars on the determinism of human actions.
The Greek astrologers did not disdain try to predict to the general scale, striving to study the prime role of the solar and lunar cycles, in the whole nature's phenomena, and in the destiny of the groups. They dedicated themselves, especially, doing horoscopes. From the inumerous astrological themes that the Greeks developed, 180 came to us (there is a full English translation, the work of Neugebauer and Van Hoessen, Greek Horoscopes, Philadelphia, The American Philosophical Society, 1959).
In 139 BC, a decree of Cornelius Hispallus tried to outlaw the astrologers, buit it turn a total failure. With the decline of the Republic, the prediction by the stars continued to demonstrate increasing progress. With the Empire, it was reached the astrological triumph, both among the credulous people but also in the literate aristocracy, among scholars and philosophers. Historical figures such as Julius Caesar, Crassus and Pompey, firmly believed in the full truth of astrological forecasts. It is in the period of Caesar that appears a vast didactic poem in five books, the Astronomical, work of Astrologer Manilius. We extract a verse: "fate rules the world, the universe is governed by an inflexible law." ( See the work of Frederic H. Cramer: Astrology in Roman Law and Politics, Philadelphia.)
It is recognized here a reflection of the Stoic metaphysics, the Law that governs the universe considered as the very emanation of the Divine Spirit. The Emperor Augustus did not hesitate to publish his horoscope, elaborated by the astrologer Teógenes, and sent to mint a silver coin in which appeared the Capricorn sign, the sign of his birth.
The Roman astrology should be considered, without any hesitation, as direct heir of Greek astrology and Latin divinities, adopting their classic names, which still prevail (Mars, Mercury, etc...), to name the planets, which were simple equivalences of Greek names. The most reputed personality of astrology in Roman period had, moreover, a Greek name, Ptolemy, author of the two great classics of astrology that are Quadripartitum (Latin title used frequently, from Tetrabiblos) and Centiloquim.
Claudius Ptolemy, originally from Pelusium, but of Greek origin, was simultaneously astrologer and astronomer, having taught in Alexandria with great success. Its important to note, very pertinently, the problem that will not cease to worry astrologers, a possible reconciliation between the astrological determinism and free will. For Ptolemy, astrology, would allow us, by  knowing the dangers enrolled in our theme of birth, orientate our lives in view of our normal "destiny ", and be, therefore, much better equipped to avoid its dangers.
Many documents attest the direct union of astrology with the pagan religious beliefs, under its coded and structured forms in the imperial era. Look up a Roman altar preserved in the Louvre, where are figured the twelve signs of the zodiac.
Astrology could not take place in the official forecast, institutionalized from the ancient Roman religion, but the same did not happen in the Empire, when beliefs and rites were increasingly penetrated by the Eastern religions.
It was in the third century of our era, whose historic apogee lies in the Roman Empire, which stood out in particular, the culmination of the solar mysteries. At the same time they have developed Oriental mysteries, rise up in Rome and in the splendid provinces - septizonia - , buildings of seven floors that evoke the image of the seven planetary spheres, owners of man's destiny, the same symbolism in ancient Babylonian Ziggourats .
The expansion of various gnosis (set of systems that aspire to give men a "knowledge" - Greek gnosis - savior ) will follow astrology. In Hermetic treatises we find humans divided into seven types, which are in correspondence with the seven planets, and the twelve signs of the Zodiac were related to the different parts of the human body that they govern.


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A ASTROLOGIA E CRISTIANISMO
 

According to tradition, a star had guided the three "Magi" to the manger in Bethlehem. But who were these three characters who came to worship the Savior? Not sovereigns, but undoubtedly, Magi, in the old and accurate sense, probably priests or diviners from Iran or Babylon. If the legend, in it whole or part, is revealed historically true, it would be normal to try interpret the fact.
The "Star of the Magi" would not have been a simple comet? Or rather - a hypothesis that Kepler would develop - would have treated as an exceptional conjunction of the planets Mars, Jupiter and Saturn,that overlapping in Heaven, would have made ​​the paradoxical aspect of a single giant star, of an exceptional clarity? Anyway, the christian astrologers did not let, throughout the ages, to point this heavenly patronage, these "signs of heaven" that would be associated with the birth of Jesus. According to the word of historian Bouché-Leclercq: "To say that God had used the stars to warn the mages, simply because they were astrologers, does not weaken the conclusion; had been warned, and therefore understood the heavenly signs."
Not all Doctors of the Church and other Christian authors are hostile to astrology. To Firmicus Julius Maternus (fourth century), astrology is presented as a discipline even liable to lead to great Christian truths, the divine Spirit carries out beneath its influence through the stars. As for the human soul, which is a flame of him, can, thanks to the knowledge of the celestial spheres, reaching the contemplation of realities, the entities of the higher plane.
We have already discussed the Indian astrology, but remains adress ourselves to the astrology in the Far East and pre-Columbian America.


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ASTROLOGIA DO EXTREMO-ORIENTE

In China , astrology was flourishing for several centuries before the Christian era and its popularity has continued to increase until the Middle Ages. By the end of the Chinese Empire, marked by the Manchu dynasty, the astrology retained the favor of the aristocracy and literate. When the old Empress Tzu-hi died ( November 29, 1909 ), the hour of the funeral has been determined by the astrologers of the court, as it was for all the sovereigns of the heavenly Empire.
Has been put the problem of the distant historical origins of Chinese astrology. If some authors regard it as extremely ancient, others see it as a divination building, in fact, posterior to the planetary divination of the Chaldeans, who would it be the oldest form known of astrological arts. Whatever it is the primary origins, Chinese astrology form a complex conjunct, which developed according to its own evolution ( see volume III - Mathematics and Sciences of the Heavens and the Earth - the voluminous work of Joseph Needham , Science an en Civilization China) .
It not seems completely absurd view among the Chinese astrology and the Mayans and Aztecs of the North and Central Americas, strange similarities, especially in the employment of an unknown animal symbolism by the europeans astrologers ( see L' astrologie chez les Mayas et les Azetéques ) .
In the view of many Chinese astrologers, the ideal horoscope would be prepared for the moment of conception, something difficult to achieve because this moment is very rarely known with real precision.
Even today, astrology remains alive in regions of chinese settlement (Hong Kong, Taiwan) or in high proportion of the chinese population (as in Malaysia, for example), meeting this practice classified among the old superstitions, clandestine, in communist China. Chinese astrology has given rise to similar forms of this art developed in other countries of the Far East such as Korea and Japan, and Central Asia.
The astrology the celestial empire distinguished indeed five planets (the Sun and Moon were considered separate), five elements, five cardinal points (by the junction of the Middle with the classic four directions of space), five gentlemen, five senses and five internal organs.
According to certain authors, the Chinese have known, however, since the highest antiquity, the existence of planets gravitating beyond the orbit of Saturn. The Chinese, the same way as the pre-Columbian Americas, had been dedicated in detail to the development of a precise calendar, revealing a highly developed knowledge of the solar and lunar cycles. The old Chinese calendar began in the year 2637 BC , when the legendary Empire of Houng-ti, to which was attributed the discovery of the sextenary cycle of the planet Jupiter, the key to Chinese astrological calculations. The years, that follow a cycle of sixty years, are designated by an animal ( there are twelve animals symbolic) and an element . In the Far East and Central Asia , was developed a traditional medicine, that endeavored to harmonize the medications to the astrological type of the sick.

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A ASTROLOGIA NA AMÉRICA PRÉ-COLOMBIANA

 

The Mayans and the Aztecs had developed, among other very complex traditional knowledge, a whole astrology. An astrologer had predicted to the future conqueror Hernán Cortés, at a time when he vegetated lamentably in Spain, that one day he would have (as happened) a power "that surpass the kings." Alexandre Volguine, current eminent astrologer and author of an important historical study (see ' Astrologic chez les Mayas et les Aztéques), says: "our astrological knowledge would certainly be more richer and more developed than they are "if the Spanish had not proceeded the systematic destruction of all manuscript literature that has fallen to their hands, because very little escaped the flames. We can, nevertheless, verified the elaborated character of the astronomical and astrological knowledge of these great civilizations.
The Mayans studied the course of the stars to establish a calendar of total accuracy who considered indispensable for the celebration of festivals and religious ceremonies. As in Babylonian astrology, was therefore a close link between astrology and religion. As among the Chaldeans, the astrologers ( and astronomers, since the two activities were part of each other) were always priests.
The very structure of society and of the states of pre-Columbian America was intended to reflect the celestial order. Thus, one of the states of the peninsula of Yucatan, the Maia-pan, stood divided into thirteen concentric provinces symbolizing the twelve signs of the Zodiac surrounding the Sun.
The Mayans attributed to the four cardinal points (the four main angles of the chart) divine Lords, the four Bacab established in the origin of the world, in the four corners of the earth, to hold Heaven, and not subject to the cyclical destruction of our world. The large it was the Bacab of East, marking the very beginning of the Zodiac - Muluc. The others were Bacab Kan, Bacab of the Noon; Ix, Lord of the North; Cauc, dominating the West.
The Aztecs did intervene on their calendar the four Lords of the Night ( Yohual - Teauhtin ), governing human destiny and impress their mark on each day. What impresses about the Mayans and Aztecs is surely the extreme complexity of its ciclology. In addition to the individual destinations, there was the collective destiny of humanity as a whole, subjected to a relentless sequence of periods of expansion and destruction.
Fot the year there was a 260-day cycle, called Tonallamatl, formed by twenty periods of thirteen days, each one having a number and a sign. In the 260th day it opens another phase called for another "Lord of the Night." Parallel to the period of thirteen days stemmed a cycle of 13 times of 20 days (giving 260 days equally). The solar year consisted of 18 periods of 20 days, more five or six additional days ( considered harmful ), adding to these "nameless days", the 27 trezenas and a 28º period of nine days, obtained in this way a series that gave the trajectory of the Sun through the 28 Houses of the Zodiac moon.
The Maya also used the Venusian year of 584 days. Five venusian years corresponded exactly to a eight-year solar cycle. They also play role in this so complex ciclogy: the cycle of the venusian thirtheen years and the solar cycle of twenty years (7200 days), called Katune. Now the planets Jupiter and Saturn are not in conjunction every twenty years? Then we can look to all the extreme complexity of the Mayan and Aztec calendar, with the interference of lunar, solar and venusian cycles.

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A ASTROLOGIA NA IDADE MÉDIA
 

ISLÃO

It was due mainly to the Arab, that the medieval West could learn alchemy, through the Latin translations of texts by Muslim authors, and it was mainly to the Islam that Latinity came into contact with astrology. It will be notice the influence on the first muslim astrologers  of the astral beliefs; heirs of the Babylonian and Greek planetary cult, of Knowledge of Harran.
From the methodological point of view, the Arab astrologers used skillfully horoscopic methods already refined by the Greeks, but perfecting it further. Do not forget the historical reputation - so justified - of the Arabs of the early Middle Ages for the calculation, which extended to the calculation of horoscopes.
In the apogee of its expansion, Baghdad, near the site of ancient Babylon, the splendid city of the caliphs, also saw the flowering of astrology. The sumptuous Harun al - Rashid ( contemporary of Charlemagne ), among others, " guiding the believers " , was titled his protector. Baghdad witnessed the building of a major observatory, where worked famous astrologers as Albumasar (died in the year 886 of the Christian era ). In his book, The Flowers of Astrology, tolds of a edificant and marvelous episode regarding his first contact with the renowned Muslim philosopher who would become his master in astrology: Al-Kindi (born Koufa about the year 796 , died in Baghdad in 873 AD). Albumasar, ardent student of a doctor of the Persian court, had been so outraged to hear Al-Kindi publicly criticize the views of his teacher, that, by its fanatical dedication to him, decided to kill the opponent. Therefore, armed himself with a knife, with the intention of assassinating Al-Kindi in the very room where he gave his courses. Al-Kindi, staring the newcomer, will have said: " You're not Albumasar of Balkh? You will be the greatest astrologer of the century, but you must renounce your evil plan. Throw away the dagger, sit down and accept the doctrine." Albumasar would then accepted, to become at once the most faithful disciple of Al-Kindi. All the way Albumasar was one of the most distinguished students of this eminent philosopher and universal wiseman. Albumasar is the Latinized name of the famous Muslim astrologer being his real name Abû Mash'ar ar Balkhi and its main treaty (in which the study of conjunctions plays an important role) was "The Kitab al Mudkal" or "Introduction to Astrology".
At the apogee on the capital of the Caliphs, and long after, astronomy and astrology were linked in the Arab world. All astronomers of Baghdad were at the same time, famous astrologers. We indicate some names of astrologers, authors of treatises in Arabic. Abû Sahl ibn Nawbakht, director of the vast library of Baghdad during the reign of Harun al - Raschid, translated into Arabic many manuals written in Iranian-average (pehlevi) that were already translating astrological pagan authors (the works of Teukros of Babylon, the Roman astrologer Vettius Valens, also). Ibn Wahsîya, one of the most eminent representatives of the Islamic Hermetic tradition, cultivated with fervor astrology ,and also alchemy and magic. Thabit ibn Qarra, chief doctor of the sect of the Knowledge of Harran, also study astrology, not only in the horoscopic aspect, but also in its ties with magic (wrote about the art of performing astrological amulets). Yacoub Ali ibn Abû Kayar wrote the renowned treaty if genetlíac astrology, which would have several Latin translations.
Rhazes ( Al - Razi ) it was one of the greatest Muslim physicians of the Middle Ages. Both in their astrological works as in his treatises on alchemy, was concerned mainly with the therapeutic consequences of a profound knowledge of these two occult arts.
The Muslim philosophy had, however, two notable opponents of astrology: Biruni and Avicenna . Bîrûnîb had a controversy with the astrologer Abu Maseh'ar, a traditional great philosopher and erudit that had adopted the old doctrine of cosmic cycles. Among the Muslims astrologers of the spanish Middle Ages, we could cite Al-Beruyi (Alpetragius for Latinos), born about 1200 AD, which endeavored to give a new explanation of planetary motion, and Al-Kabisi ( Alcabitius ). It is in Tunis, on the other hand, in the palace of the Sultan Al-Mamur (1016-1062), which unfolds the career of Albohazen Haly, or Abenragel Haly. His reputation as an astrologer has become considerable, thanks to the work "Judgment of the Stars" (in eight books), earning the flattering adjectives of the other Ptolomeu  and Summus astrologus (the greatest astrologer).
The Muslim Spain played without any doubt a major role in increasing penetration of astrology in medieval Christianity. It is the astrologer Al Arab Zarkali (Arzachel) that we owe the planetary tablets known by the name of Boards of Toledo, used so often in the course of the following centuries.
Astrology has not disappeared in Islam since the Middle Ages, but it didn´t seems to have sparked greater work.
Among the divinitory processes associated with muslim astrology, are to mention the art of building pentagons starry and magical talismans, and also geomancy or divination by figures formed by the arrangement of the projected points according to a traditional method, either by tracing on paper, or automatic drawing in the sand.

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ASTROLOGIA ENTRE OS JUDEUS MEDIEVAIS

The apogee of medieval Arab civilization seems to have been marked by friendly relations between Muslim and Jewish scholars. This is how a Jew, Mash'allah, played in the field of astrology, a very important role in the foundation of a school and of a famous observatory in Baghdad of the Caliphs. It seems to have been in medieval Muslim esotericism a direct influence of such complex numerological speculations of the rabbis in the sacred letters and numbers, a influence very clear in some astrologers. It is normal to assume such influence of Kabbalah on the work of Sir al Hakim (The secret of the sages) of Mohyiddin Bunni, devoted to the ninety-nine names of Allah.
 
BYZANTINE
Although it was mainly through the Latin traditions of Arab authors that astrology penetrated the West, is not to omit the durable conservation, in the Byzantine Empire, of the Greek knowledge, both in terms of astral divination, as in other disciplines. In the third century, authors such as Theodore and John Prodrome Camateros wrote two long astrological poems. The last great platonic philosopher of Byzantium, Plethon, who also believed in astrology, was a important historical personality who made the junction between the medieval Byzantine Hellenism and the first Italian Renaissance. He remained in long stays in Italy, particularly in Florence, where he became friends with Petraca and Marsilo Ficino.


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ASTROLOGIA NO OCIDENTE MEDIEVAL

It is certainly through arabic Spain that was made ​​the spectacular arrival on the scene of traditional astrology in the Christian West, dating from the twelfth century, especially marked by his return in force, followed by the officialization of this art in various Christian kingdoms.
But what was the official position of the Church regarding astrology throughout the Middle Ages? The reasons why many Doctors of the Church distrusted the Greco-Roman astrological attempts to justify human actions through a rigorous planetary and stellar determinism were the denial of the freedom of man and the of the world and the risk of worshiping deities and supernatural powers, to which it was atributed the dominion of the stars. ( Cf.M de la Ville de Mirmont , L' Astrologie in Gaule to siécle V ) ( Revue des Anciennes Éstudes , 1902 , pp115 et seq , 1903 , pp.255 ff)
In fact, practically, medieval astrologers were not disquieted by the Church, unless they entered openly in magical practices and heresy. Astra inclinant , non necessitant - "The stars guide, not determine." - A relevant medieval adage that will not cease to be remembered to this day.
The medieval astrologers were drawn increasingly to meddle in politics. The sovereigns themselves increasingly appealed to their services and the diviners might be tempted to intervene in public affairs. In this context, so many famous astrologers in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries intervened in such complex intrigues of the Ghibellines, supporters of the Emperor against the Guelphs, who defended the temporal power of the popes, in the famous "Fight of the Priesthood and the Empire."
Like all troubled times, the Middle Ages witnessed the uplifting or depressing influence of several predictions. If it is well known the famous "panic of the year 1000" , we could also cite among the apparent failures of astrological predictions, the prediction that was made by John of Toledo in 1179. He announced effectively a conjunction of all the planets in the sign of Libra for the year 1186, that should trigger a terrible natural cataclysm, but nothing remarkable happened ( see Louis Mac Neice L' Astrologie , Paris , Tallandier , 1966 , p138 ). In the Middle Ages, no conflict it could be produce between the sciences of nature, as presented, and the sciences of today qualified as "occult", including astrology and alchemy.
The Astrology has found its place in the Speculum majus of Vincent of Beauvais (born in the late twelfth century) this colossal encyclopaedia, which required the assistance of numerous expert contributors, it was, in a sense, the "Larousse", manuscript evidently, of the period.
The Ptolemaic system will continue for a long time to dominate the spirits with its astrological image of the systems in the world.

RENASCIMENTO


Mapa Natal do Séc. XVII

It would be a mistake to think that the Renaissance would have marked a progressive discredit of the ancient astrology, when the great scientific discoveries and techniques advanced. Therefore, far from diminishing the Renaissance, the number of astrologers increased even more in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, and its prestige was much more important than in the late Middle Ages. Of the highest characters to illiterate masses, men worried about the future had full confidence in the astrologers.
 
From the point of view of the methods practiced by the astrologers of this period, it can be seen that are very little different from those used by their medieval predecessiors and even astrologers practiced by Arabs, Greeks or Romans. The very disposition of the birth horoscopes remained the same in Europe until the end of the nineteenth century.
 
In this regard, it would not be useless to point out also that the circular arrangement of the horoscopes, we are accustomed to today, is effectively modern (remote to the "scientific" astrologer Choisnard, from the end of the last century). Rather, the more current disposition was in square. The horoscopes of the Renaissance, such as the Middle Ages were often presented with this traditional layout, formed by the insertion of a square in the center of the other, and by the linear determination subsequent to the twelve regions, involving a third square (figure above). In the center of the small central square, the astrologer inscribed the date and time of birth of the individual. Each of the sectors, corresponding to the twelve solar "houses" presumed to govern themselves the various areas where human activity is exercised, it should be completed in accordance with the planets and constellations found in the state of heaven, examined at birth.
The moment that astrology seemed so deeply and intimately linked to the Ptolemaic geocentric (Earth reigning in the center of the universe), the advent of a modern astronomy (which will make henceforth the Earth and the other planets revolve around the Sun) was not accompanied, among its promoters, of a sudden collapse of the belief in the old astrological determinism. Copernicus himself never renounced his belief in planetary influences. It was to his Austrian friend, the famous astrologer Rheticus, who entrusted the care of publishing the work that exposed his new heliocentric system - the Revolutionibus Coeletium Orbis (From the Revolutions of the Celestial Orbs -1543 ).
As for the great Danish astronomer Tycho - Brahe (1546-1601), the master of Kepler, he was not only a tireless observer of the celestial space, but an convicted astrologer that spent long years to prepare thoroughly horoscopes. Even among his direct routes from which is called a contemporary free-thinking, we found a systematic defense of astrology! This is the case with Pomponazzi or Pompanácio (1462-1525) in his The Fact ( "Of Destiny" ) where he invoked the laws to justify the complete astrological determinism of human actions - both individual and collective.
Even flipping through a very rudimentary manual history, the Renaissance show us as an extremely disturbed period. Practically it is only with the advent of the seventeenth century that it was the operated a very clear distinction, and shall be final, between astronomy (in the modern sense of the name) and astrology. For most men of the sixteenth century, the confusion continued to spread.
In short, it would be impossible to rigorously eliminate the astrology from the history of ideas during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries ( see Jean Delumeau , La Civilisation de la Renaissance , Paris , Arthaud , 1967) .

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ASTROLOGIA E NOSTRADAMUS

Nostredame Michel (1503-1566), better known by the Latinized name, Nostradamus, was, as his father was one of the most distinguished physicians of the time, although it has become more celebrated as an astrologer and prophet. Until the present time, his most famous work, the Centuries, never ceases to be reissued, bold and exciting the patient efforts of generations of scholars and interpreters. Nostradamus died, note the conditions and time that he himself had predicted. Let us salute this fact, exceptional among seers, prophets and soothsayers, who generally lose their faculties when it comes to look at themselves.
Nostradamus is not the only personality who called Renaissance astrology practices prophetic. Then there is the case of John Dee (deceased in 1604) which, in the reign of Elizabeth of England, allied to the practice of ceremonial magic of alchemy and astrology.


ITALIA E ALEMANHA

Marsilio Ficino (1433-1499) in his work Platonic Theology , ( his major work ) , established the existence of the soul forming above the Earth , the twelve celestial souls , owners of the zodiac signs. Each of these rules , so the top of your "home " , a part of things down here . The Sun , " Heart of Heaven" , sends his light , which heats and unifies over all earthly creatures , but only man in the radius has life, shines and receives light .
Among the most famous Italian professional astrologers of the time , we cite Cristoforo Landino (1434-1505) , professor at the University of Florence . Announced that the conjunction of Saturn and Jupiter in the sign of Scorpio ( November 25, 1484 ) , far from being evil , announce the renewal Italian national . But the most famous astrologers transalpine period is the illustrious Jerome Cardan (1501-1576) , who carried out much research developed at the University of Paris, in the various branches of knowledge . One should not minimize the knowledge of Cardan , one of the greatest mathematicians of his time , particularly in applied mathematics. Due to him, the discovery of a sleep mode (which still bears his name ) , allowing subtract the compasses of ships to move the vacancy. Taught in Paris until 1523, where his reputation as a doctor, mathematician and astrologer has not ceased to grow.
Two men in particular embodied , in Germany , the Hermetic Renaissance - Henri - Corneille Agrippa of Nettesheim (1486-1535) and renowned Paracelsus ( 1493-1541 ) . From the first , the celebrated Occult Philosophy circulated in manuscript before its publication in Cologne in 1510. It is a complete treatise on secret philosophy , aiming at the service of man all the hidden powers at work in the universe . He reported the existence of three separate worlds , the Angels , the Astros , and the Elements. Each of the last two suffer the influences that which precedes and thus find therefore justified astrology.
In the system of Paracelsus , the traditional astrology found its place perfectly , even in the medical field . To establish the correct dosage of drugs to prescribe , it would, he thought, knowing the horoscope of the patient in order to take into account the distribution of astral influences . Paracelsus is one of the representatives of the Western Hermetic tradition that is more devoted to develop the doctrine of man as an image , as a representation of the cosmos and all the practical applications of the medical system paracelsiano based on this principle ( see Athenienses Paracelsus Philosophia ad . )


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KEPLER E A ASTROLOGIA

The great astronomer Kepler (1571-1630), to whom is due the development of the three laws governing planetary orbits around the Sun, throughout his life he practiced astrology horoscopes doing to garner support for themselves and their . Kepler never questioned the possibility of drawing exact themes of birth, but also wanted to renew astrology developing all the traditional system based on the old Pythagorean doctrine of the harmony of the spheres where each planet in its orbit emits its own music. The planetary aspects acted not only on the Earth as a whole, but over all beings therein are met, including men (see the greatest work of Kepler, the Harmonices Mundi, the French translation by Francis Warrain, Paris, Hermann 1942 .)

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ASTRÓLOGOS ROSACRUCIANOS
 

Among the members of the Rosicrucian brotherhood (legendary founder Christian Rosencreutz) in the beginning of the seventeenth century, astrology enjoyed a high reputation, for they constitute one of the indispensable components of traditional hermetic sciences. (See Chemical Wedding of Christian Rosencreutz))
Rosicrucianism Europe will feature a renowned astrologer in the person's medical English alchemist Robert Fludd (1574-1637). Defined astrology as a science of divination by the appearance of heavenly harmony and play the sublunary elements. Split would be in two parts: astrology "natural" and astrology "supernatural", taking care of this methodical production of talismans and pentagons starry protectors. But in the eyes of Fludd, astrology formed one of the traditional sciences which together constitute the building more coherent conceivable. Robert Fludd Rosicrucian wrote an extraordinary encyclopedia in Latin Utriusque Cosmi Historia ("Hisatoria one and the other world"), ie, the macrocosm and microcosm, the universe and man, abundantly illustrated many fine prints symbolic. As much as Fludd in the eyes of those of Paracelsus and the whole hermetic tradition reigns perfect correspondence between the analog traditional knowledge of the Universe and Man. The action on the celestial underworld, physical, operates by the conjunction of the influences of the planet and the sign. Fludd had a very high idea of astrology, which considers as a part of the sacred edifice.

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ASTROLOGIA EM DESCRÉDITO CIENTIFICO
 

La Fontaine expressed very well the evolution in the French media services , the general attitude about astrology . In the middle seventeenth century considered astrology as the prototype of the " false science " , contributing to the final separation of astrology astronomy in France and the European countries .
Galileo still believed in astral guidance as to produce numerous topics . In 1609 , drew the horoscope of his patron , the Grand Duke of Tuscany, who predicted a long life - guaranteed reckless because the high character died weeks later . From 1650 the situation changed completely and that no astronomer , but Flam Stead , creator of the Observatory Grennwich recognized more astrology as credible science .
In 1666 , upon the establishment of the Academy of Science , Colbert , astrology was excluded from the disciplines officially recognized .
But of course, this gradual evolution in the reactions of the media educated Europeans had no direct impact immediately in all social strata , subsisting old belief in astrological predictions . Check this would be at the popular level , visible in the continuous sale of calendars and astrological would see until the almanac Stellarum Vox ( " The voice of the stars " ) , created by the English astrologer Francis Moore ( 1657-1715 ) , to be published until 1896 . The same takes place at the level of educated elites in the great century , and many were the high personages who believed in astrology , to the point of even having your astrologer.
In the seventeenth century , Italy experienced a whole school of astrologers between religious . Cite Father Placidus of Marmosets (1603-1668) , who devoted himself to accurately calculate all planetary conjunctions of the year 3980 before the year 2358 BC after BC Let us mention also among astrologers Italians of that period , Bonatti , professor at the University of Padua (author , 1687 " Universa astrosophia naturalis " ) and Tattoni , medical and municipal Terni strong advocate of medical astrology , ( author of " Il medico vera apology medicofisica the astrologer astrologer against VOLGO il " - 1685 ) .
It is important to mention two astrologers of the seventeenth century , Morin de Villefranche (1583-1650) , who published the book " Astrology Gallica " , translated by Richard S. Baldwin ( the original Latin 1661 ) and his English contemporary , William Lilly ( 1602-1682 ) , who published the book " Christian Astrology " London, Regulus Publishing Co , 1985 ( facsimile 1647 ) , both quite useful to astrologers up to today . The works of William Lilly can understand where they came from certain astrological fantasies of our time invariably fall away and disfigure the original meaning and the reason being , distorting their higher purpose , as the author warns in his works which include : Catalogue of Astrological Work , The Nativity of William Lilly ; Question in Lilly Hourly ; Aphorisms ; aspects; Anima Mundi , Anima Astrologiae ..


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SOBREVIVÊNCIA DA ASTROLOGIA
 

As the eighteenth century progresses, not the case, however, the existence of what we particularly persistent rightly called "the reverse lights of the century."
There is a tendency to see the nineteenth century as the time anti-astrological, par excellence, with the final release of astronomers regarding any thought reserved for possible use in the study of the stars for divinatory purposes.
Once again, we are inclined to project onto our ancestors the stringent requirements rationalists, who have become so characteristic of the sages of the twentieth century. The simple examination of works published in the first half of the nineteenth century was enough to show us the coexistence of astronomy and astrology, in parallel with the strictest scientific treatises, such as the work of Isaac Ardant, "Essais de Physique et Philisophie Astronomique quelques sur la Nature et du globe ", Paris, Sautelet et Cie, 1826).
Alarming about the dangers of quackery, the British Parliament put astrologers outlaw whose provision was subsumed in the act oddly on vagrancy, no doubt because of the diviners act, preferably at parties and fairs countryside .
However, astrology, though discredited in relation to the public service, continued to exist, and not only among the charlatans explorers public credulity. The Englishman John Varley published in 1828, its important Treaty Zodiacal Physiognomy.


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DESPERTAR DA ASTROLOGIA
 

The almanacs Zadkiel and Raphael, large men distinguished Englishmen, renewed astrology and even today, astrological almanacs continue to be published in Britain under these pseudonyms.
Richard James Morrison, who would become known as Zadkiel, was born in 1795, started to be Royal Navy officer, resigning in 1829 to his career, to devote himself entirely to astrology. When his contemporary Raphael, was effectively the astrologer William C.Wright. Can say that it is the diffusion of these two Englishmen that astrology get their rehabilitation in public opinion, and the more she sought to deliberately present themselves, from then frees the character "hidden" once connected to this art.
This trend towards the establishment of an astrology "scientific" deepened in the second half of the nineteenth century. When in England, Alan Leo (1860-1917), WF Allen, his real name, founded in 1896, the first major magazine "scientific" astrology, "Modern Astrology, his book" 1001 nativities "was a huge success and remained until today a practical manual very considerate. Alan Leo got emulators very numerous among his countrymen and cite also Olg Richard Walter, better known by his pseudonym, Sepharial.
The second half of the nineteenth century saw astrology "scientific" spread not only in the Anglo-Saxon world, but also in other western states.


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SÉCULO XX

Despite the widespread image of the Copernican world (the Sun , not the Earth , taken as the center of our planetary system ) , astrology was not , in any way , directed to the disappearance . On the contrary , far from being something ephemeral , the spectacular rebirth of astrology during the " Belle Epoque " should not cease to be stressed as they ran the twentieth century .
A few years before the Second World War, " fakir Birman " , of French origin , had had the idea of ​​publishing their horoscopes daily , prepared for the natives of each of the signs of the Zodiac , a Parisian newspaper of wide circulation , having been immediate success and overwhelming , so the same procedure now used on a large scale around the world, many practitioners.
But astrology business could not hold up in a seemingly positive way and not happy to put at your service the vast Press daily or weekly , also used modern techniques . Thus , after the press , came to use radio and television as mass media broadcasting , but with unpredictable effects and hardly likely to be monitored in the recovery of the credibility of the astrological foundations .
We could not speak of this century , not to mention Marc Edmund Jones , considered the dean of American astrologers . In his long and prolific career , did a bit of everything - created the Sabian symbols and the theory of planetary models ; was philosopher, theosophist , a Presbyterian minister , screenwriter , writer and one of the most creative astrologers of the twentieth century . The great contribution of Marc Edmund Jones for generations of astrologers was the development of a theory base for understanding the gestalt natal . The central idea of Gestalt psychology or Form , is that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts . The shape of an object is more important to our perception of the elements that constitute it . Applied to the map, this principle has revolutionized the entire technique of reading because shifts the focus of attention of isolated qualities of each planet to the general design of the letter . The launch of the theory of planetary models ( planetary patterns) , or models of personality based on planetary distribution , happened in 1941 , through an unassuming book called " How to learn Astrology " . Thereafter , each time more terms as Seesaw Bucket Locomotive Splattered Bowl and other popularized in the astrological jargon , now part of the repertoire Astrologer behavioral guidance . Jones worked on the theory of models until his last books in the 70s . When he died in 1980 , aged 92 , left a truly innovative contribution to the Astrology of the twentieth century . ( See Specialties . )
Another big name that keeps the time in today's times , is Dane Rudhyar . Rudyar learned astrology during a period that was also studying the psychological writings of Carl G. Jung , and began to think about using astrology and Jungian psychology . This junction overcame some basic problems of astrology , including its deterministic approach to life and the problems of the appointment of an agent to produce pleasing astrological effects . Rudhyar postulated that the stars do not cause the observed effects on human life , but photos were " synchronistically " ( synchronously ) aligned humans . Adding : " They detail the psychological forces of individuals , but do not replace human freedom in responding to these forces . " . He called his new interpretation of astrology " harmonic " and how ideas have matured renamed it astrology " humanist " , the theme of his book , The Astrology of Personality , published in 1936 . A friend , Theosophist Alice A. Bailey , stimulated the development of his thought and published his book .
In 1969 Rudhyar founded the International Committee for Humanistic Astrology , a small professional company working on the development of his perspective . Began one of the most fruitful periods of his life , writing several books a year for the next decade . He began to absorb the knowledge of astrology transpersonal focused on exploring altered states of perception and exalted , and the mid -1970s moved beyond the humanistic astrology , which designated the " transpersonal astrology . " Rudyar also began to reflect on the New Age movement and wrote several volumes on more sophisticated planetary consciousness and New Age philosophy
That was until the 70s , when the New Age movement has emerged , when the major publishers discovered and began to publish his writings . The first was " The Practice of Astrology ," published in 1970 by Penguin Books .
Astrological analysis in this century , we highlight its latest improvement , the horoscope established in record time , the electronic ordering with your Astroflash released by IBM in 1968 in France . Starting date of birth ( day, time and place ) , the device calculated the astronomical data of the letter from heaven and traced the home position of the planets , a psychological portrait individualized .
Two other big names in astrology that we could not fail to mention , and which continue to this day , continuing to astrology theosophical and psychological astrology are Liz Greene and Eduard Sasportas , the German School of Ebertin . Author of major works include titles : " Saturn " , " Astrology for Lovers " , " The outer planets " , and several lectures , for example ; TheJupiter / Saturn Conference (with Stephen Arroyo , another big name in this century astrology ) and TheAstrology destination . " The development of personality " ( four volumes , with Howard Sasportas ) , "Dynamics of the Unconscious " (with Howard Sasportas ) , and many others could stand , which you can check in our Library .


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ÚLTIMA ANÁLISE
 

For centuries astrology focused on the observation of astronomical objects and registration of their movements. As we saw in the chronology of its evolution, astrologers have used data collected by astronomers and organized into tables called ephemerides, showing the positions of the heavenly bodies.
The main tool of astrology is the horoscope (also known as natal chart, astrology, birth chart, birth chart, mandala or just letter). This map is a two-dimensional diagram that represents the position of celestial bodies seen in a certain spot, which may vary from the center of the Earth to its surface, and having the sun as the center point.
We will give more depth to his performance, and for this, please refer SPECIALTIES / SYSTEMS / TECHNICAL.

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FONTES
 

  • Johannes Kepler, “Concerning the more certain fundamentals of astrology”
  • Kocku von Stuckrad, “História da Astrologia”
  • Al Biruni, " O livro de Instruções dos elementos da Arte da Astrologia"
  • Isaac Newton, “Astronomical Dialogues between a Gentleman and a Lady” e
  • “Where in the Doctrine of the Sphere, Uses of the Globes, and the Elements of Astronomy and Geography are”
  • James Randi, “Astrology”
  • Serge Hutin, “História da Astrologia”
  • Nice, “Éditions des Cahiers Astrologiques”
  • Cf. M. Kern, “Das Licht des Ostems; Die Weltanschauung in Indien, China und Japan”
  • Henry Corbin, “Historie de la philosophie islamique”
  • Albumasar, “As Flores da Astrologia”
  • Alexandre Volguine, “L’Astrologie chez les Mayas et les Aztéques”
  • Márcia Sarcinell , “ Hitler - um estudo astrológico”
  • La Tour Saint-Jacques, “Kepler e a astrologia”  1956
  • Derek e Julia Parker: “O grande livro da astrologia”
  • William Lilly, "Chiristian Astrology"
  • Guido Bonatus, "Anima Astrologiae"
  • Francis Bacon,  "Teoria do Céu"
  • André Barbault,  “Tratado Prático de Astrologia”
  • Morin de Villefranche , “O Astrologia Gallica”
  • Oto Neugebauer e Van Hoesen, "Greek Horoscopes"
and several references throughout the text, where we put the right source.
 
See the Library on our website, with several written works over the centuries.
 
This compilation is responsible for ASPAS where these sources were consulted and made the respective translations.

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